In Grönroos' Perceived Service Quality model, expectations are a function of market communications, image, word of mouth, and consumer needs and learning, whereas experience is a product of a technical and functional quality, which is filtered through the image.
Grönroos more clearly shows the existence of a perception gap, although there is no suggestion of "delighting" only of narrowing the gap. However the model has more practical application as it shows factors that contribute to each side of the gap. It demonstrates that the supplier can affect both sides of the gap most notably by managing customer expectations. In addition it illustrates that the customer experience is a product of the image of supplier quality, not just the actuality. Clearly marketing as well as process and technical quality has an effect on the perception gap.